Immune checkpoint inhibitor was undoubtedly a breakthrough in cancer therapy. Since FDA approved Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab for melanoma in 2014, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade has been proven to be effective in multiple cancers including lung, head and neck, kidney, breast, bladder cancer, and lymphoma.
Two CD19-specific CARs approved by US FDA in 2017 have induced prominent responses in patients with refractory leukemia and lymphomas. However, Grade 3/4 CRS and ICANS were reported in proportion patients and required ICU transfer. Scientists are continuously investigating new strategies to augment CAR-T cell function and simultaneously minimize treatment-related toxicities.